Antioxidant defense systems in plants help to protect them from damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are produced as a byproduct of normal cellular metabolism and can be increased by environmental stressors. These ROS can cause damage to cell membranes, proteins, and DNA if not neutralized by the plant's antioxidant defense mechanisms.
One of the main antioxidant defense pathways in plants is the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, which involves the antioxidants ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and glutathione. In this cycle, ascorbic acid is converted to its oxidized form, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), which is then reduced back to ascorbic acid by the enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX) using glutathione as a reducing agent.
Another key antioxidant defense pathway in plants is the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). These enzymes neutralize the superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which are produced as a byproduct of cellular metabolism.
Cannabinoids has been found to increase the expression of genes involved in these antioxidant defense pathways, which can lead to an increase in the production of antioxidant enzymes and molecules in plants. This can help to protect plants from damage caused by ROS, and promote healthy growth and development.It's important to note that these are complex metabolic pathways and the effects of Cannabinoids on them may vary depending on the plant species and environmental conditions, and more research is needed to fully understand how cannabinoids works in this context.